Monday, November 11, 2013

Strategic Planning Analogy #515: Follow the Recipe

The nice thing about a “To-Do” list is that you can pretty much do anything on the list in any order you want. The individual items on the To-Do list are independent of each other. If I choose to clean the garage first and mow the lawn second, that’s okay. Or if I choose to mow the yard first and clean the garage second, that’s okay, too. Or if I can get a friend to help me and do both at the same time, that’s also okay. All that matters is getting the stuff on the list done.

A recipe doesn’t work that way. Things need to be done in a particular order. You have to measure the ingredients BEFORE you mix them together. You have to mix the ingredients BEFORE you bake them. If you bake before mixing or mix before measuring, you will have a mess on your hands. The recipe will not turn out as desired. Unlike a To-Do list, a recipe needs to be done in the proper order.

This is especially true if you expect me to eat what you make.

There is a long list of activities associated with strategic planning, like coming up with Visions or Mission statements, analyzing the environment, formulating a budget, creating a position, designing KPIs, assigning implementation tasks, and so on. To get it all done in a timely fashion, there is the temptation to treat it all like a To-Do list. Just get every activity assigned to somebody and let them work at—all at the same time.

That may sound efficient at first. But strategic planning is more like a recipe than a To-Do list. Connections and dependencies exist between the tasks. There tends to be a need to do things in a general order. Otherwise, you end up with a mess.

Unfortunately, I see companies skipping steps or doing them in the wrong order. That’s like mixing before measuring and skipping the baking. I wouldn’t accept that in the kitchen, and I won’t accept it in the world of planning.

The principle here is that before embarking on strategic planning, get a good recipe and do the tasks in the proper order. In this blog, I will offer such a recipe. Since most recipe books come with pictures of the recipe, I have one, too—as you can see in Figure 1. Click on it to see a larger version.

I have summarized everything into three major tasks—learning, deciding and doing. These are the planning equivalents of measuring, mixing and baking. The first task is learning—getting smart about understanding the current state and expected future state. This applies to the state of your internal company/brand and the state of the external marketplace where you will compete.

To learn about the external environment, you need to study the consumers, the competition, regulations and other external factors which can impact your success. To learn about your internal environment, you need to look at your strengths and weaknesses and how you get things done.

This learning is a lot like the measuring in a recipe. You are measuring four things—current state, direction, magnitude and speed. This applies to measuring customer segments, competitive positions, technological advancements and internal issues. The four measurements work like this:

  1. Current State: What do things look like today (market share, number of people, size of industry, attitudes, threat of Porter’s Five Forces, internal competitive advantages, etc.)? This is a sort of good or bad measurement.
  2. Direction: In the future, how will the current state measurement change in size? Will it go up or down?
  3. Magnitude: In the future, how massive will those changes in direction be? Will the changes (up or down) be huge or small?
  4. Speed: How fast will the future changes occur? Will it happen almost immediately or will it take some time (fast or slow)?

This is not about making precise measurements. Measuring the future is not that easy and precision takes too long (you have to wait until the future gets here before you can precisely measure it and then it is too late to be useful in planning). For planning purposes, it is usually enough to know good or bad, up or down, huge or small, and fast or slow. I talk about this in more detail here.

Once you become smart via learning, you are ready for step two in the recipe—to make some key decisions about how you want to play the strategic game. This is where you put together your unique mix of attributes and processes that you will stand for and win with.

Without gathering the knowledge first, your decisions for this mix will be little more than guesses, hopes, or wishes. Yet, I often see organizations start with some decision activities as their first act. They want to dive in and create visions and missions from the start. They want to decisions about what they want to be begin the planning process. It’s like mixing before measuring.

The problem is that is somewhat irrelevant what we initially want our mix to be. That’s because we do not operate in a vacuum. We operate in the context of the environment and time. The idea is not to pick a place that is pretty and desirable. The idea is to pick a place where we can succeed. And the best place to succeed depends on everything else going on in the marketplace relative to our strengths. And we won’t know that unless we do the learning first.

I remember going to a franchising seminar and hearing a lecture from a successful franchisee. He said that some of the most successful franchisees ignore the glamorous businesses and enter businesses which are dirty, ugly and risky. Why? Big corporations tend to avoid the dirty, ugly and risky. This makes them more profitable for the little franchisee. The idea here is that analysis and learning may point you to away from your first choice (the glamorous option) and put you somewhere else which will make you far more successful. Remember, nearly everyone in the smartphone business is losing money. It may be glamorous, but not a place where everyone can succeed.

In making decisions for your strategy, keep in mind the context of yourself within the environment. Make sure the position you choose is seen by the marketplace as desirable, sizable, ownable, preferable, achievable, believable, understandable, and profitable. I talk more about these concepts here. And then, once you have made your choice about what you want to be, translate it into an external message (position statement) and an internal business model (how I must operate to make the position a deliverable reality).

The third step is doing—the hard work of making your decisions come to life. This is where you “bake” the strategy. This, by necessity, has to come last. Until you make your decisions, how will you know which actions are the right ones to take? Until you know your way to win, you cannot know which are the winnable actions for your business. 

For example, Aldi and Whole Foods are both grocery retailers. Yet they have decided on radically different positions. Aldi aims for the lowest possible price while Whole Foods aims at health, nutrition, and natural/organic. The right actions for success at Aldi are almost the opposite of the right actions for Whole Foods, and vice versa.

It’s not that some actions are always good and others are always bad. Good and bad is determined by the position. A good action for Aldi can be bad for Whole Foods, and vice versa. So how do you know what the right actions are prior to deciding the position?

Yet, I often see businesses rushing to do the actions first. They claim there is no time to learn (or the future is unlearnable) and that consumers make all the decisions. Therefore all we can do is act quickly and learn from our mistakes. I don’t think it’s quite that simple. I don’t want to stick random ingredients in the oven and then taste them afterwards to learn if it is good. Random actions are not as efficient as making the right action tradeoffs based on a chosen position.

The “doing” actions you choose to prioritize need to address both internal and external challenges. Externally, one needs to convince the customers and the supply chain that you own our position and that it is in their best interests to prefer us. Internally, we need to be sure we have a model capable of delivering the position.

Those who want the “doing” to come first aren’t entirely wrong. There are some things which are best
learned via doing and experimenting. But that doesn’t mean that you skip the traditional learning and deciding steps. It means you use the “doing” actions of your current planning cycle to begin the learning of the next cycle.

You can see this in Figure 2. Planning is a continuous series of cycles. Just as you don’t just eat once and quit eating ever again, you don’t just plan once and quit. The planning process never really stops. When you get to the end of one cycle, you use what you learned to influence the next cycle.

Strategic planning is more like a recipe than a To-Do list. Good planning tends to do things in a particular order, without skipping steps. First you learn by measuring what’s going on (and expected to happen) in the internal and external environments. Then you decide how you want to mix together attributes and processes in order to create a position and business model which optimizes your chances for success in that environment. Third, you “bake” your strategy by doing the implementation actions which make your mix decisions a reality. Finally, you use what you learn from those three steps to do an even better job in your next planning cycle.

This recipe for planning isn’t 100% etched in stone. There is room to experiment with this recipe. But don’t throw it away.

Friday, November 1, 2013

Strategic Planning Analogy #514: Working the Wrong Mine

Let’s assume there are two miners, named Bob and Jason. Bob is a big believer in analytics and measurement. Bob has KPIs (Key Performance Indicators) for every part of his mining operation and measures them often. Bob receives spreadsheets every day, showing in precise detail exactly how everything is going in the mines. Using that data, Bob can make minor adjustments to improve productivity on an ongoing basis. Everyone in Bob’s mining business is trained in how to improve their KPIs.

Sure, all that time, money and effort into analytics leaves little left for anything else, but Bob is happy. After all, he attributes his devotion to analytics with allowing him to eke out a small profit from a poor mine. Bob believes that without that devotion, he would lose money at that low-yield mine.

Jason, on the other hand, takes a different approach to mining. Rather than fretting about having the latest mining equipment filled with gadgets to measure productivity, Jason just carries a simple pick axe to his mine.

And every day, Jason extracts trainloads of valuable ore from his mine. Jason is making a large fortune on his mining business.

And why is Jason doing so much better than Bob? Well, while Bob was focused on incremental improvements via analytics, Jason was devoting his time, money and effort on locating the best place to do mining. And, as it turns out, great productivity at a poor mine is less profitable than average productivity at a high-yield mine which is bursting with pure ore.

It’s common sense that—all other things being equal—a mine full of high quality ore will be more profitable to operate than a mine with very little (and low quality) ore. Yet Bob was so fixated on improving operations at his current low-yield mine site that he never stopped to consider that maybe he’d be better off looking for a better place to mine. His head was down looking at spreadsheets rather than up and scanning the geography for better sites.

Jason, on the other hand, realized that the highest determination of mining profits was in the quality of the mining location. Therefore Jason spent his effort on what was the high determination factor. Jason first searched for a superior place to mine and was rewarded handsomely.

As obvious as this common sense may appear, it seems that there are a lot more people like Bob in the business world today than Jason. Look at all the current buzz in strategic planning. It’s about big data, analytics, and KPIs. Job descriptions for strategic planners today talk more about statistical analytic prowess than big picture positioning. I recently saw where a company was placing strategy in its M&E department (Measure & Evaluate).

Now I’m not against measurement or productivity efforts. But that’s not the major source of growth and profitability. As we will see later in this blog, positioning yourself in the right place is a greater determinant of success. Therefore, positioning should be of higher importance, since decisions there will have greater impact. We need to be more like Jason and less like Bob.  

The principle here is that leaders need to focus their time and energy on activities which produce the highest impact. Positioning is one of those high impact areas. Therefore, positioning should be a high priority of leaders and their strategy group…higher than low impact issues such as analytics.

The facts back this up. The latest came this week in an interview on  McKinsey’s Chris Bradley and Angus Dawson were talking about the Art of Strategy and what we’ve learned over the last 15-20 years about the topic. In the interview, Chris Bradley said research shows that “80 percent of growth is explained by decisions about where to compete or by market selection.”

Based on this research, if 80% of growth is determined by position—where to compete, who to target, winning position—then that leaves only 20% for everything else, including analysis, productivity initiatives, market share wars, and KPI monitoring. Shouldn’t we be focusing on the 80% rather than the 20%? In other words, wouldn’t we be better off spending time finding the right place to mine rather than getting more productive in the wrong place to mine?

Chris Bradley went on to say that:

“Companies should be just as focused about positional improvement as they are on performance improvement. [The research] reveals the importance of strategy in that light, not as a method of how we gain market share or decide what our edge is going be in the next quarter, but as a way to fundamentally position the company against the right trends, catch the right waves, and put our bets on the right markets.”

As Chris implies, positioning is where strategy adds the most value, so all those other strategic tasks (like productivity, market share, or near-term KPI targets) should not be sucking up all of one’s focus.

I can illustrate this principle using a company I worked with. This company had a portfolio of retail brands. One of the brands was doing poorly, so I helped investigate the cause of the problems and potential solutions.

One of the things we learned was that there were a lot of areas where productivity could be improved. This included areas such as labor, inventory, distribution, marketing and merchandising. We investigated what it would take to improve these areas of inefficiency (time, effort, money) and what the impact might be if efficiency was improved.
But we did not stop there. We also spent significant time looking at the big picture position of this retail brand. What we learned was that the position of this retail brand was a lot like Bob’s mine—a poor, low yield position. In particular:

  1. The sites of the stores were inferior to competition.
  2. Nearly every store was in an economically depressed market with declining population.
  3. Past actions had so confused the customer that one would essentially have to start over in building a compelling reason for customers to prefer the brand.
Because of the enormity of these positioning negatives, the productivity initiatives would have only a limited ability to improve the business. Even a highly efficient store will struggle if it is in a bad location in a declining market with a confused customer. It would have been like Bob’s effort to improve his poor mine—much work with little benefit—because productivity focuses on the 20% factor rather than the 80% factor.

The only way to create the big leap in improvement would have been to fix the position (the 80% factor) by relocating the chain to better sites in growing markets with a dedicated effort to rebuild loyalty. The cost and risk on that was very high.

Therefore, rather than put in all the time, effort and money needed to incrementally improve the productivity of that retail brand, the company sold the brand and put all that time, effort and money into a different brand which had a much better position (more like Jason’s high-yield mine).

That was the right move, because it focused first on positioning (the 80% factor) before determining decisions on where to create incremental improvements (the 20% factor). By putting the effort behind the brand with a better position, it improved the return on that effort.

Incremental improvements via analytics, statistics, KPIs, Six Sigma, Lean and other such productivity tools has its place. But it is not the place of prominence. The big rewards come from getting the overall position right. Positioning needs the place of prominence in the strategic planning process. This is because if the position is wrong, then all those other efforts are constrained by the lack of potential within the poor position. You can only get so much ore out of a bad mine, no matter how productive you are. Better to focus on getting the position right, so that subsequent efforts are focused on place where the potential rewards are high.

Now some of you may be thinking that you can afford to focus almost exclusively on productivity issues now, because you already have a great, winning position. The problem is that environments change. The great positions of today may become lousy positions tomorrow. Decades ago, that poor retail chain I talked about had a great position (before the cities went into decline and the consumer position was compromised). So one can never ignore the positioning issue. It needs to be consistently monitored to ensure that it remains in tune with the marketplace and relevant with the customer.